Mardan is a city and the headquarters of Mardan District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. The name Mardan was given to a small area after the name of Pir Mardan Shah, a prominent religious figure. Gradually, a large surrounding area came to be known as Mardan. The area constituting Mardan district is a part of the Peshawar valley, which first appeared in history as a part of the Gandhara Kingdom. Until 1937, Mardan district was a part of Peshawar district but in 1937, Mardan was set up as an independent district after the name of its headquarters town. Mardan is the 19th largest city in Pakistan. It is the headquarters of the Yousafzai tribe, although a significant number of Momands have settled there over the past years. The region has a very rich cultural and heritage History. The district contains the famous archaeological sites of Takht Bahi, Jamal Ghari and Shahbaz Garha.